Vin Fiz and Solar Impulse

Calbraith Perry Rodgers, the first person to fly across the United States, was deaf from an early childhood disease.  Even though he came from a long line of naval heroes, this handicap kept him from joining the Navy, but didn’t slow his quest for adventure.  He was one of the first to sign up for flying lessons with the Wright Brothers at their home base in Ohio.

Flying (!) replica of Vin Fiz hanging in Hiller Aviation Museum, San Carlos, California

Flying (!) replica of Vin Fiz hanging in Hiller Aviation Museum, San Carlos, California

He was 31 years old when William Randolph Hearst offered a $50,000 prize to the first aviator to fly coast-to-coast in 30 days or less.  Rodgers convinced the Armour Meat Packing Company to sponsor his attempt as a promotion for their new soft drink, Vin Fiz.  As a coincidence, your editor visited the Hiller Aviation Museum a few weeks ago, and they have a beautiful replica of the Wright Model EX in Vin Fiz markings, just as it looked when Rodgers set out from Sheepshead Bay, Long Island, New York, on September 17, 1911.

Period map of Vin Fiz's voyage, replete with plentiful advertising for soft drink

Period map of Vin Fiz’s voyage, replete with plentiful advertising for soft drink

The airplane was not pristine for long.  Within a day, he crashed and wrecked the airplane.  It required the first of several rebuilds, “And this was only the first of five major crashes, two engine explosions, and dozens of minor incidents.”  His deafness possibly contributed to some accidents because of his inability to hear his engine.  There were no instruments – not even a compass – and Cal followed railroads when all other cues failed.

Visitors can "fly" Vin Fiz with three-screen simulator. Pulling and pushing on left stick

Visitors can “fly” Vin Fiz with three-screen simulator. Pulling and pushing on left stick rolls the airplane right and left, doing the same on the right pitches the nose up and down

Arriving at Long Beach, California on December 10, 1911, he was only 54 days late to collect the Hearst prize, but did win the admiration of the 50,000 on hand to see him land on the beach – very little of the original craft finishing the trip with him.  What he lacked in a reliable airplane he made up for in sheer perseverance.  Rodgers’ gravestone reads, “I endure.  I conquer.”

vin fiz solar impulse

Solar Impulse had just set out for Phoenix when your editor made it to the Bay Area.  It’s of interest that Bertrand Piccard and Andre’ Borschberg made a homage to Cal Rogers in the report of their flight across America.

Rodgers was a pioneer, just as Piccard and Borschberg are today.  They all share the desire for a better future and the willingness to follow their dreams against all challenges.

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Life-Saving Deliveries by Air

Zipline, a San Francisco-based startup, has partnered with the government of Rwanda to air-drop medical supplies to remote villages, truly a potential life-saver for many without immediate access to medicine or blood for transfusions.

Several firms in America have promised delivery of consumer items using drones, with Flirtey’s quadrotor drone delivering “a package that included bottled water, emergency food and a first aid kit” to an uninhabited residential setting in Hawthorne, Nevada on April 7. Flirtey calls the flight “the first fully autonomous, FAA-approved urban drone delivery in the United States.”

Another firm, Matternet, displayed its quadrotor delivery systems five years ago at the Green Flight Challenge Expo held at NASA Ames Research Center following the completion of the flying completion. They have delivered in New Guinea, the Philippines, Bhutan and Haiti for Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), and according to the New York Times, “experimenting with the government of Malawi and with UNICEF to deliver infant H.I.V. tests by quadcopter.”

Zipline drones, 22-pound, fixed-wing, electric-powered airplanes, can carry a 3.5-pound payload, and have enough range to make an out-and-return flight of up to 75 miles from a central warehouse in Kigali. Their 100 kilometer per hour cruise speed enables deliveries to most places within 30 minutes. When they return to home base, technicians swap batteries and load a SIM (single inline module) card with a new destination into the plane’s controller. Each plane can make dozens of deliveries, and a central supply point can provide hundreds of life-saving packages a day with its dozen airplanes. The craft use GPS and Rwanda’s cellular network to navigate. The autonomous drones can drop a parachute accurately enough that the firm claims a drop zone equivalent to four parking spaces is room enough to retrieve packages.

Begun in 2014 after Keller Rinaudo and Will Hertzler visited a young health worker in Tanzania to review “his text messaging system that enabled hospital workers to urgently request medical supplies in life-or-death situations,” Zipline is an attempt to overcome local infrastructure problems.  Rinaudo saw that despite the instant communications, slow delivery of requested supplies by the primitive road systems amounted to death sentences for many who receive needed materials too late. The database showed entries “thousands of names long,” with an inadequate supply chain to supply them.

No need to land. Zipline drone makes a pass over the drop zone and returns to central warehouse for reloading and relaunch

No need to land. Zipline drone makes a pass over the drop zone and returns to central warehouse for reloading and relaunch

Rinaudo and Hetzler enlisted Keenan Wyrobek, a pioneering, Stanford-trained roboticist, to help design an airborne alternative, according to Wired, “The three technologists assembled an engineering team with aerospace industry experience, attracting talent from Space X, Aurora Flight Sciences, Boeing and Lockheed Martin, as well as Stanford and Google. The start-up has raised $18 million from investors including Sequoia Capital, GV (formerly Google Ventures), SV Angel, Subtraction Capital, Stanford University and individuals including Jerry Yang, a founder of Yahoo, and Paul Allen, a founder of Microsoft.” United Parcel Service (UPS) teamed with the startup by providing $800,000 in support.

Efforts seem to be moving forward and showing early successes. Because of the talent pool within the company, everything from the programming of flight plans to the design and manufacture of packing materials is done in house. This kind of all-inclusive organization seems to make for rapid progress and quick corrections of problems that pop up.

The Times article includes this insight from Jay Gundlach, president of FlightHouse Engineering, an Oregon-based aviation consulting firm. “This is the new face of the aerospace industry. Established unmanned aircraft companies should learn from Zipline’s agile and innovative culture.”

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AEAC Rolls Out Sun Flyer

Yesterday, George Bye’s Aero Electric Aircraft Company (AEAC) rolled out its Sun Flyer, an electric two-seat training aircraft with photo-voltaic cells on the wing and tail to extend its range, and over two or three days, recharge its batteries.  With orders for 65 Sun Flyers already on the books, interest is high in this airplane.

In an email, George informed your editor that, “We’re using the Enstroj Emrax 268 high voltage electric motor, rated at 100 kW and 400 volts nominal.  Of course, the motor ‘throttle’ is electronic.”

He responded to a query about battery monitoring and protection: “Battery safety is multi-fold.  We monitor cells individually, cells within each ‘battery box’, (with electronic disconnect), battery box system electronic and mechanical disconnect, and then [provide] thermal and vapor barriers.”

Lancair-like in appearance, LSA-like in performance, Sun Flyer should appeal to new and experienced pilots

Lancair-like in appearance, LSA-like in performance, Sun Flyer should appeal to new and experienced pilots

Looking a great deal like a fixed-gear Lancair, Sun Flyer will offer extremely low operating costs, a real draw for prospective pilots.  Bye estimates operational costs, including charging and maintenance, will run about $11 an hour.  Operational costs for a typical Cessna 172 trainer are about $66 an hour, making aircraft like the Sun Flyer a potential gateway into flying for new or lapsed pilots.

The airplane’s LG Chem 300-pound lithium-ion batteries have an energy density of 260 Watts per kilogram, enough to keep the Sun Flyer airborne for three hours, according to Bye.  Solar cells can provide two kilowatts continuously, and can extend range and endurance.

To enable quicker recharging, Sun Flyer is partnered with The Bloomington Corp. of Orlando, Florida, now working on a national network of battery charging stations.  They’ve also bought 30 Sun Flyers, along with 35 others by Spartan College of Aeronautics and Technology and a local flight school.

Interior should make new pilots comfortable enough, even during the most grueling maneuvers

Interior should make new pilots comfortable enough, even during the most grueling maneuvers

This Proof of Concept (POC) machine will begin flight tests in the second quarter of 2016, and is anticipated to show up at AirVenture 2016, possibly even flying in.

A modern trainer that redefines the economics of flying may be just what the market needs to resurrect a flagging industry.  Sun Flyer and others coming will need to meet FAA Part 23 regulations to reach that market – and that may be a bigger challenge than any engineering or logistics obstacle.  George has been working with the FAA on establishing a path forward.  For many reasons, we hope his efforts are successful.

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Milking Magnesium for All It’s Worth

We’d all love an electric car (or an airplane) that goes more than 100 miles flashing a “Low Battery” indicator.  Researchers at the Toyota Research Institute of North America (TRINA) are working on a divergent approach to achieving greater range and smaller battery sizes by using magnesium as an active ingredient.

In a bit of serendipitous synergy, Toyota principal scientist and chemical engineer Rana Mahtadi heard fellow researchers discussing development of an electrolyte for a practical magnesium battery.  She was researching hydrogen storage materials and their application to fuel cell technology at the time, and realized the two lines of research intersected nicely.

Toyota explains that “Magnesium metal has long been theorized as a much safer and more energy-dense alternative to current lithium battery technology. Lithium metal, in its natural state, is unstable and can ignite when exposed to air. In order to make lithium metal safe for batteries, ions are taken from the lithium metal and embedded into graphite rods, which are then used in batteries. That lack of actual metal, however, limits the amount of power a battery can store.”

Magnesium, according to Toyota, is a very stable metal with the potential to store much more energy.  Scientists hadn’t found a magnesium-friendly electrolyte that would allow practical battery development up to now.

Batteries are made up of three main components: a ANODE (-), a CATHODE (+) and between them, a ELECTROLYTE. Electrons move between the anode and the cathode through the external circuit, while ions are transported through the electrolyte to balance the charge. Different metal combinations require different electrolytes that must efficiently allow the movement of ions while not corroding the anode and cathode.

Toyota’s simplified schematic of the three three main components in their magnesium battery: an ANODE (-), a CATHODE (+) and between them, an ELECTROLYTE. Electrons move between the anode and the cathode through the external circuit, while ions are transported through the electrolyte to balance the charge. Different metal combinations require different electrolytes that must efficiently allow the movement of ions while not corroding the anode and cathode.

Batteries are made up of three main components: a ANODE (-), a CATHODE (+) and between them, a ELECTROLYTE. Electrons move between the anode and the cathode through the external circuit, while ions are transported through the electrolyte to balance the charge. Different metal combinations require different electrolytes that must efficiently allow the movement of ions while not corroding the anode and cathode.

Without telling us what the material is, Toyota’s press release hints at big things to come – just not right away.  Mohtadi said, “We were able to take a material that was only used in hydrogen storage and we made it practical and very competitive for magnesium battery chemistry. It was exciting.”

Energy Storage Group Manager Paul Fanson relates this to the team concept Toyota embraces.  “The results really speak to the strength in our group.  We try to put people from diverse backgrounds and diverse technologies together and allow them to collaborate. This is a great example of that working very successfully.”

Toyota shares its findings in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition (Vol. 54, Issue 27) under the title “An Efficient Halogen-Free Electrolyte for Use in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries,” in the hopes that others will add to the push forward.  Oscar Tutusas, a fellow researcher, takes a cooperative view.  “We want to make this electrolyte a standard for magnesium batteries… and we want other researchers to develop it further so these batteries can see the light of day.”

Note that it might take 20 years for this initial discovery to see commercial reality – much like other “breakthrough” developments.

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Behang University Makes a Better Battery

Lithium-sulfur batteries display winning qualities, such as low production cost, environmental friendliness, and high energy density.  Researchers usually give up, or look elsewhere, when the materials’ poor cycle life and loss of active materials on both anode and cathode show up.

Researchers at Beihang University in Beijing report developing “a new Li-sulfur battery using honeycomb-like sulfur copolymer uniformly distributed onto 3D graphene (3D cpS-G) networks for a cathode material and a 3D lithiated Si-G network as anode.”  They report “a high reversible capacity of 620 milli-Amp hours per gram, [and an] ultrahigh energy density of 1,147 Watt-hours per kilogram (based on the total mass of cathode and anode), good high-rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 500 cycles (0.028% capacity loss per cycle).”

Structure and performance of Beihang battery

Structure and performance of Beihang battery

The materials used in the cathode and anode presented challenges.  The “inherent insulation of sulfur” on the cathode and the high solubility of polysulfide intermediates cause an inability of the active materials to respond to one another, and the conversion of sulfur into less reactive materials lowers output and cycle life.

Researchers tried a series of logical steps, including embedding sulfur into activated carbons, and into carbons with pores of varying sizes – everything from macroporous, mesoporous, and smallest of all – microporous carbon structures.  This improved electric conductivity and slowed loss of active materials, but still limited the amount of sulfur and polysulfides that could be carried on the cathode materials.

Coating the cathode with sulfur copolymer “has shown good inhibition of polysulfide dissolution, but needs improved electric conductivity.”  So, all solutions bring with them an accompanying problem, even with a net gain in output.

Anodes have another set of initial issues, because the lithium metal reacts with many electrolytes and forms dendrites during charge-discharge cycles, shortening the battery’s life and causing severe safety issues.  Alloy-type anodes with similar voltage plateaus to lithium include silicon nanowire and lithiated Si/SiOx nanospheres.

Perhaps because of the many ways in which lithium and silicon can be combined with graphene and myriad other materials and electrolytes, the authors of the paper on this research conclude this way:

“Thus, a new type of silicon-sulfur battery built from silicon-based anode and sulfur-based cathode is becoming one of next-generation Li-S batteries to overcome their severe cyclability and safety problems. However, the researches of emerging silicon-sulfur battery including the configurations, design and fabrication of appropriate and mutual matching anodes and cathodes are still in the infancy.”

Bin Li, Songmei Li, Jingjing Xu and Shubin Yang published their findings in the Royal Society of Chemistry’s (RSC’s) journal Energy & Environmental Science, under the title “A new configured lithiated silicon-sulfur battery built on 3D graphene with superior electrochemical performances.”

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300 Horsepower, 737 Foot-Pounds of Torque

Extra 330Ls have a long nose, usually cowling a Lycoming IO-540 or -580.  The 330 EL, though, houses 14 battery packs of 18.6 kilowatt-hours each (according to InfoAvion, an Argentinian publication), all to allow the Siemens D-SP260 to flex its 300 horsepower muscle and demonstrate what 1,000 Newton-meters (737 foot-pounds) of torque can do for vertical rolls.

Flying Magazine thought that its display at AERO Friedrichshafen in Germany could be a harbinger of the future of emission-free airshow performances.”

Siemens intends to use the 330 EL for flight test and optimization of a electric propulsion system based on the 50 kilogram (110 pound) motor on display.  Even the large battery array will give only about 15 to 20 minutes of wide-open airshow power, enough for a great routine, lacking only the airshow noise.

Batteries under glass highlight Extra 330 EL, sure to provide a little extra in performance

Batteries under glass highlight Extra 330 EL, sure to provide a little extra in performance

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The Next Round of X-Planes

In your editor’s childhood and youth, X-Planes were all premised on speed, Chuck Yeager breaking the sound barrier in 1947 in the Bell X-1 when your editor was five years old (do the math). Movies that filled screens in those days featured test pilots as steely-jawed, fearless protagonists beating back the awesome forces in the sky. Frequent news stories and breathlessly narrated newsreels, and later television news captured the imagination with items about going higher, faster, and farther.

NASA is bringing back the X-plane, but emphasizing quiet, efficient, clean and practical goals. NASA’s own description of the programs shows a turn toward green aviation in our future. “Goals include showcasing how airliners can burn half the fuel and generate 75 percent less pollution during each flight as compared to now, while also being much quieter than today’s jets – perhaps even when flying supersonic.” We still feel the need for speed, but responsibly.

While the X-1 was a product of the slide rule, as were most air and space craft up through the SR-71 Blackbird and Apollo rockets, modern design relies on a three-legged stool of advanced technology. Computational power provided by supercomputers, experimental methods including precise wind tunnel measurements, and actual test flying comprise the three legs of the current X Plane program.

Results will be exciting based on demonstrations of materials, structures, aerodynamics, noise reduction and powerplants over the last six years – even including coatings that prevent bug residue buildup on wings – something about which sailplane pilots can testify. Many have been reported in the blog. These technologies could save the airline industry $255 billion over the first 25 years of their adoption.

Jaiwon Shin, associate administrator for NASA’s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, explains, “We’re at the right place, at the right time, with the right technologies. The full potential of these technologies can’t be realized in the tube-and-wing shape of today’s aircraft. We need the X-planes to prove, in an undeniable way, how that tech can make aviation more Earth friendly, reduce delays and maintain safety for the flying public, and support an industry that’s critical to our nation’s economic vitality.”

Programs such as LEAPTech, Boeing’s SUGAR Volt project (going on for over four years now based on the age of the video), and other existing approaches are stepping stones to the clean, green future envisioned in the latest NASA programs. Airbus in Europe, assisted by academic and governmental entities, will provide competition and incentive for American manufacturers to keep pace. None of us ever had an opportunity to share a cockpit with Yeager or Scott Crossfield, but we may be going on supersonic trans-oceanic flights in a decade or so, brought to us in the spirit of those pioneers who led before.

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At 11:44 PDT, April 22, Solar Impulse 2, expertly piloted by Bertrand Piccard through tricky winds above Moffett Airfield, made its second landing in the United State, almost three  years after Solar Impulse 1 had left on its flight eastward* and just in time to close out Earth Day.

SI2 UN Cartoon

 

HB-SIA (Solar Impulse 1) made its trip across America in six hops, none lasting more than 21 hours and 22 minutes.  HB-SIB (Solar Impulse 2) flew six hops between Abu Dhabi and Nanjing, China emulating the stages of the American crossing in distance and duration.  Things reached record-setting levels after that.  The 44-hour trip from Nanjing to Nagoya, Japan gave pilot Andre’ Borschberg a real workout, followed by his record-setting 117-hour epic voyage from Nagoya to Kalaeloa, Hawaii.  Fellow pilot Bertrand Piccard finished the trans-pacific flights with a 62-hour flight to San Francisco.

The pilots could not do this without a large ground crew, seemingly perpetually busy with preparations, maintenance, and in the case of the fading batteries, repair and testing.  In the meantime, they transport, inflate, and assemble the air-filled hangar that goes everywhere HB-SIB does.

As the team prepared to welcome Bertrand to the Bay Area, he took time to fly over all the scenic highlights, giving the populace ample photo opportunities.

In their synopsis of the flight, Solar Impulse includes the wonderful conversation between Bertrand and United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon.  They shared their thoughts on the technology involved and how well it fits with the 175 nations signing the accords made at COP21 in Paris last year.  Doris Leuthard, Vice President of Switzerland, the project’s home country, had an amiable talk with Bertrand, including a strong message: “Clean technology is the future. I think it’s the most inspiring project since the flight to the moon. But with solar energy and renewable energy, what we need is proof that it is possible to make a change.”  The Secretary General closed with a near blessing.  “Thank you for your leadership and inspiration. I wish you a smooth flight. You are leading us all into an exciting new era.”

We, too, wish the people at Solar Impulse continued sunshine and a clear path back to Abu Dhabi.

*As a note of national pride, Eric Raymond flew his home-made Sunseeker 1 across the U. S. in 1990, taking 21 hops to go from San Diego to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. 

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Thanks to Richard Glassock, we have news of the first electric airplane to fly in Hungary.  The Magnus eFusion made its maiden flight at the Matkópuszta airfield in Kecskemet, Hungary on April 11.

A two-seat, side-by-side, low-wing monoplane, eFusion is an all-composite craft with fixed tricycle gear.  Its 410 kilogram empty weight includes batteries and a ballistic recovery system. With a maximum takeoff weight of 600 kilograms, the airplane normally flies with a Rotax 912 or UL Power 260 iSA, both four-cylinder, four-stroke units meant for the Light Sport Aircraft market.

Peter Besenyei of Hungary performs during the training for the third stage of the Red Bull Air Race World Championship in Putrajaya, Malaysia on May 16, 2014. // Samo Vidic/Red Bull Content Pool // P-20140516-00025 // Usage for editorial use only // Please go to www.redbullcontentpool.com for further information. //

Peter Besenyei of Hungary performs in the Magnus (formerly Corvus) 540 during the training for the third stage of the Red Bull Air Race World Championship in Putrajaya, Malaysia on May 16, 2014

A fusion of the Corvus Racer 540, a high performance aerobatic aircraft flown in the Red Bull Air Races and the Corvus Phantom, a Light Sport Aircraft, the Magnus Fusion series of aircraft sport a symmetrical, fully-aerobatic wing (6+/3- G, not the 10G wing of the racer), a titanium firewall, chromoly tube center section (described as an “integrated chrome molybdenum central console”) and ballistic aircraft retrieval parachute.  The airplane may seem wildly over-designed for an LSA, but it performs nicely on engines smaller than the Lycoming AEIO-540 6-cylinder, air-cooled, 325 hp (242 kW) unit in the racer, and its clean design lends itself well to electric power.

Verical fin and rudder display electron representing eFusion power

Verical fin and rudder display electron representing eFusion power

Which is what the eFusion is all about.  Siemens, with its “safe and robust battery system” and optimized electric propulsion system intended for use in the “cost-sensitive segments of Very Light, Light Sport and Ultra Light aircraft,” sees aircraft such as the eFusion excellent testbeds for the Siemens systems.  And imagine having the only electric LSA on the block that can do snap rolls with aplomb.

Frank Anton, head of eAircraft at Siemens, is happy for the chance to test his company’s wares.  “The maiden flight of the eFusion is another important milestone in electric aviation. The aircraft will serve as a flying test bed for our further battery system optimization.”  A cooperative effort between a team from the Hungarian subsidiary of Siemens in Budapest and the German colleagues at Siemens headquarters, eFusion might end up bottoms up frequently.

Siemens motor and batteries being installed in eFusion

Siemens motor and batteries being installed in eFusion

eFusion’s aerobatic capabilities will allow for unusual attitudes among student pilots.  Imre Katona, CEO of Magnus Aircraft Corporation says, “Magnus gave the eFusion aerobatic capability, so it can serve for upset recovery training for airliner pilots.”. eFusion’s low operating costs will allow upset recovery training in an environmentally friendly manner while exposing more pilots to the benefits of such training – usually performed in larger, more expensive craft.

As distribution of this neat little machine grows, we may all have the opportunity to take a (literal) spin in eFusion.

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Bob Elliott of the comedy team Bob and Ray died February 3, reminding your editor of one of the many routines Elliott and Ray Goulding performed on live radio.  It involved an inventor who had perfected a solar panel that could run the lights in your house all day, but couldn’t keep them going at night when they were really needed.  That was over 50 years ago, and investigators at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, SuperSTEM, and the University of Oxford have come up with a possible solution to Bob and Ray’s quandary.

The interfaces between the two oxides (represented in this idealized, atomically abrupt model by the yellow and purple bands) create an electric field. The field separates electrons (silver) excited by sunlight (gold), which could be used to catalyze hydrogen fuel production.

The interfaces between the two oxides (represented in this idealized, atomically abrupt model by the yellow and purple bands) create an electric field. The field separates electrons (silver) excited by sunlight (gold), which could be used to catalyze hydrogen fuel production.

Combining two oxides, one containing strontium and titanium (SrTiO3) and the other lanthanum and chromium (LaCrO3), they came up with a material that uses the interface between the two oxides to absorb visible light and produce electrons (negative charges) and holes (positive charges), which might be “useful for catalyzing reactions, such as producing hydrogen fuel.”

The oxides have to be kept apart, though, because otherwise, “they will quickly annihilate one another without doing anything useful,” somewhat like a Hollywood marriage.  The international team cleverly synthesized the material as a series of alternating layers with a built-in electric field that separates the excited electrons and holes.  This strategy makes the materials an excellent catalyst.

A visual representation of this interaction might resemble a moire pattern, but possibly only to your editor.

The Blue Square art animation black and white digital art

By controlling the interfaces to have either a positive or negative charge, the resulting electric fields can interact with electrons and holes excited by solar energy, driving electrons to the surface, where they interact with water molecules, break their bonds and produce hydrogen.

Bob and Ray would be proud.  Researchers report, “This material opens up new scientific frontiers to solve a persistent energy challenge: storing solar energy for later use. Fuel cells capable of running on hydrogen fuel created by solar energy could allow people to heat their homes and run their computers on solar energy even in the dark of night.”  Or fly their solar-powered airplanes anywhere at any time.

Researchers are exploring the properties of these superlattices using cutting-edge X-ray measurements at synchrotrons around the world and using other advanced microscopy techniques to look at the chemical makeup of the interfaces.

As one would guess, this type of research requires heavy hitters in intellectual and fiscal terms.  Participants included the Linus Pauling Distinguished Post-doctoral Fellowship at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science,Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, PNL’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program,. Sector 20 facilities at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the DOE BES, the Canadian Light Source and its funding partners, the University of Washington, and the APS.   Electron microscopy was carried out in parts at the SuperSTEM Laboratory, the U.K. National Facility for Aberration-Corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, which is supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program.

The team’s paper, “Interface-Induced Polarization in SrTiO3-LaCrO3 Superlattices,” was authored by Ryan B. Comes1,*, Steven R. Spurgeon1,Steve M. Heald2, Despoina M. Kepaptsoglou3, Lewys Jones4, Phuong Vu Ong1, Mark E. Bowden5, Quentin M. Ramasse3, Peter V. Sushko1 and Scott A. Chambers, and published in  Advanced Materials Interfaces.

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