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  CAFE Technology Library
High Lift


A Curated Archive of Selected Papers
on GA Technology

These free, downloadable pdf files have been compiled by the CAFE Foundation for use by those who are serious about competing in the GFC and advancing PAV technology. In general, these papers are professional grade, graduate level material. Many are from the archive of NACA and NASA, including NASA's PAV Sector. View the NASA Technical Report server.

CAFE was graciously given special permission by AIAA for many other papers included here. AIAA shares CAFE and NASA's goal of encouraging further research in PAVs and aeronautics. Readers are encouraged to visit the AIAA website for an even greater archive of valuable papers.

It is expected that this library will be particularly useful to teams competing in the NASA GFC. Please also visit the CAFE flight test archive.

Below is a complete listing of resources available in the library:

Human-Vehicle Interface: The "eCFI"

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# Title Author Year Description Size
1 Flight Test Evaluation of a Separate Surface Attitude Command Control System on a Beech 89 Airplane Shu W. Gee et al 1976 A Dryden study of low-cost fly-by-wire using split control surfaces that retain mechanical connection to the autopilot. 1.6MB
2 GPS-aided MEMS Inertial System Crossbow Engineering Spec Sheet 2007 The specification sheet for CrossBow's leading digital gyro/gps component for eCFIs. 160KB
3 Guidance and Control of an Autonomous Soaring UAV Michael J. Allen 2007 An 14 foot span electric UAV sailplane uses total energy sensing to detect and use thermals via its autopilot. 7.2MB
4 Aviation Safety Program--Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck--Technical Plan Summary Steven D. Young et al 2006 The Naturalistic Flight Deck (NFD) project summary from NASA Langley. Ken Goodrich's NFD is the model from which all eCFI designers should draw. A key component of making PAVs useful. 6.3MB
5 Small Aircraft Pilot Assistant: On Board Decision Support System For SATS Aircraft Jie Yong et al 2005 Distributed pilot decision-making plays a critical role in high volume operations at noncontrolled 1.4MB
6 Terrain Sampling Density, Texture, and Shading Requirements for SVIS --Final Report to the Iowa Space Grant Consortium Tom Schnell et al 2002 An excellent 50 page paper on low-cost synthetic vision hardware and software developed under a NASA grant at University of Iowa. The origins of the Synthetic Flight Bag product. 1.9MB
7 The Naturalistic Flight Deck System: An
Integrated System Concept for Improved
Single-Pilot Operations
Paul C. Schutte et al 2007 Recent paper from NASA Langley Resarch Center 850 KB
8 Angle of Attack for GA Aircraft Control Shu W. Gee et al 1971 Using AOA to servo control GA aircraft 1.1MB
9 Advanced GA Aircraft Control Paul C. Loschke et al 1974 Advanced servo control for GA aircraft 1.6MB
10 Come Fly With Me - The eCFI Brien A. Seeley M.D. 2007 By telling a story about how a PAV's advanced flight deck saves lives, the future role of the eCFI is depicted. 376KB
11 The eCFI Part 2 Brien A. Seeley M.D. 2007 Dr. Seeley presents NASA's model of eCFI sensors and actuators and how they help pilots fly safely 340KB
12 The eCFI Part 3 Brien A. Seeley M.D. 2007 The series concludes with photos and descriptions of actual hardware, linkages and parts suppliers 296KB

Flying Qualities

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# Title Author Year Description Size
1 Fixed-Wing Flying Qualities Testing, Volume IV Chapter 13--Closed Loop Handling Qualities Evaluation     An excellent guide to flying qualities evaluation that is used by the Test Pilot School at Dryden, this chapter defines the difference between open loop and closed loop maneuvers and their importance. 156KB
2 Department of Defense Handbook--Flying Qualities of Piloted Aircraft Department of Defense 1997 The comprehensive official dictionary of flying qualities and their assessment. Over 700 pages. 4.2MB

Drag Reduction

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# Title Author Year Description Size
1 Fluid Mechanics, Drag Reduction and Advanced Configuration Aeronautics Dennis M. Bushnell 2000 Open thermodynamics and their potential to greatly reduce drag. Great bibliography includes exciting AIAA papers by Goldschmied on negative drag. 292KB
2 An Approach to Turbulent Incompressible Separation under Adverse Pressure Gradients Fabio R. Goldschmied 1964 Theory and prediction of skin-friction drag as a function of Reynolds number 1 MB
3 An Approach to Turbulent Incompressible Separation and the Determination of Skin-Friction Under Adverse Pressure Gradients Fabio R. Goldschmied 1964 More Theory and prediction of skin-friction drag as a function of Reynolds number 652 KB
4 Integrated Hull Design, Boundary-Layer Control, and Propulsion of Sub-merged Bodies F.R. Goldschmied 1966 Up to 50% reduction in power required for low-drag hulls is described in detail 1.4 MB
5 Shaping of Axisymmetric Bodies for Minimum Drag In Incompressible Flow Jerome S. Parsons
Raymond E. Goodson and
Fabio R. Goldschmied
1973 Optimization of low drag hulls akin to the Dolphin experimental body shows major drag reductions 1.1 MB
6 Comment on LTA Aerodynamic Data Revisited F.R. Goldschmied 1977 1 page presentation on major drag reduction method 80 KB
7 Aerodynamic Hull Design for HASPA LTA Optimization Fabio R. Goldschmied 1978 Airship shape optimization by afterbody shape 528 KB
8 Wind Tunnel Demonstration of an Optimized LTA System with 65% Power Reduction and Neutral Static Stability Fabio R. Goldschmied 1983 Major wake drag reduction by aft suction slot 1.3 MB
9 Jet-Propulsion of Subsonic Bodies with Jet Total-Head Equal to Free Stream's F.R. Goldschmied 1983 Major wake drag reduction on axisymmetric bodies with aft co-axial jet exit and rear suction slot 564 KB
10 On the Aerodynamic Optimization of Mini-RPV and Small GA Aircraft F.R. Goldschmied 1984 Application of Goldschmied suction slot body to GA fuselage design—very promising drag reduction 768 KB
11 Aerodynamic Design of Low-Speed Aircraft With a NASA Fuselage/Wake Propeller Configuration F.R. Goldschmied et al 1986 Major drag reduction for GA aircraft of 140-180 mph range 968 KB
12 Fuselage Self-Propulsion by Static-Pressure Thrust: Wind-Tunnel Verification F.R. Goldschmied 1987 Boundary layer control by Goldschmied body shape yields major drag reduction 1.1 MB
13 On a Least-Energy Hypothesis for the Wake of Axisymmetric Bodies with Turbulent Separation: Pressure-Distribution Prediction Fabio R. Goldschmied 1988 Naval Airship “Akron” studied as a Dolphin shape 1.5 MB
14 Synergistic Airframe-Propulsion Interactions and Integrations Steven F.
Yaros et al
1998 A white paper of 124 pages that integrates many high-
tech aerodynamic concepts. Includes excellent illustrations.
15 Flight Research on Natural Laminar Flow B.J. Holmes and c.p van Dam 1988 Explorations of the drag reducing benefits of NLF on several aircraft; includes the effect of engine noise/vibration on NLF. 7.43MB
16 Natural Laminar Flow Experiments on Modern Airplane Surfaces B.J. Holmes et al 1984 A 144 page landmark paper on the behavior of NLF and the effects of rain on its stability. 10.3MB
17 Low Drag Fuselages Francisco Leme Galvao 1968 A succinct note on low drag bodies of revolution: tuna shapes. 5.2MB
18 Nano-coatings for wetted drag reduction Francisco Leme Galvao 1991 Potential for reduction skin drag using special coatings. 1MB

High Lift Techniques

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# Title Author Year Description Size
1 Flight Test Results for an Advanced Technology Light Airplane David L. Kohlman 1977 From the Journal of Aircraft, an impressive set of performance gains found by applying multiple high lift and drag reducing technologies to a Cessna Cardinal. Included LE Kruger flaps and spoilers for roll control. 1MB
2 Development of Pneumatic Channel Wing Powered-lift Advanced Super-STOL Aircraft Robert J. Englar et al 2002 From AIAA's Aerodynamics Conference in St. Louis. A recent paper on the amazing high CL capability of the ChannelWing and its promise as a method for super STOL performance. 724KB
3 Pneumatic Channel Wing Powered-lift Advanced Super-STOL Aircraft Robert J. Englar et al 2002 From AIAA's 1st Flow Control Conference in St. Louis. More details on the ChannelWing's promise of high lift performance. 720 KB
4 The Aerodynamic Design of Multi-element High-lift Systems for Transport Airplanes C.P. van Dam 2002 A thorough review of multi-element high lift devices with lots of detailed drawings that show mechanisms and proportions. Though primarily presenting flaps systems on airliners, still very valuable for smaller air vehicle application. 2MB
5 Investigation of the Lift Distribution Over the Separate Wings of a Biplane D. Kuchemann 1938 41 pages of theory and measurement of bi-plane lift interactions, with excellent graphics. Remarkably sophisticated for 1938. 2MB
6 Wind-tunnel Investigation of an NACA-23012 Airfoil with Several Arrangements of Slotted Flaps with Extended Lips John G. Lowry 1941 A look at optimizing Fowler Flap design. 1MB
7 Two-dimensional, Wind-tunnel Investigation of the NACA 641-012 Airfoil Equipped with Two Types of Leading-edge Flap Felicien F. Fullmer, Jr. 1947 Leading edge flaps and their benefits. A 10% chord LE flap gave as much as 0.43 higher CLmax. 1MB
8 Langley Full-scale-tunnel Tests of the Custer Channel Wing Airplane Jerome Pasamanick 1953 The full-scale tunnel test of the Custer ChannelWing at Langley. Tested at 25-40 mph, the aircraft showed promise for STOL high-lift, but showed problematic lack of control and trim authority at zero airspeed. 58 pages. 12.6MB
9 Exploratory Investigation of the Effectiveness of Biplane Wings with Large -chord Double Slotted Flaps in Redirecting a Propeller Slipstream Downward for Vertical Take-off Robert H. Kirby 1956 A large chord double slotted flap system on a biplane used to turn propeller thrust 90° down. 828KB
10 Investigation of Effectiveness of a Wing Equipped with a 50-percent-chord Sliding Flap, a 30-percent-chord Slotted Flap, and a 30-percent Chord Slat in Deflecting Propeller Slipstreams Downward For Vertical Take-off Richard E. Kuhn 1957 Using propeller slipstream over elaborate slotted flaps to increase CL for STOL performance. 1.4MB
11 Tests of the NACA 641A212 -Airfoil Section With a Slat, a Double Slotted Flap, and Boundary Layer Control by Suction John H. Quinn, Jr. 1947 Flaps, LE slot and suction to enhance Clmax up to 3.86!! 1.9MB
12 A Low Speed Two-dimensional Study of Flow Separation on the GA(W)-1 Airfoil With 30-percent Chord Fowler Flap H.C. Seetbaram et al 1977 76 pages on ideal Fowler flap gap geometry for a low speed GA wing. 3.2MB
13 Experimental and Computational Investigation of Lift-Enhancing Tabs on a Multi-Element Airfoil Dale L. Ashby 1996 158 pages on vortex generators, tabs and wedges as flow control on high lift devices. Excellent illustrations. 10MB
14 CFL3D: Its History and Some Recent Applications Christopher L. Rumsey et al 1997 A 1997 view of the evolution of Computerized Fluid Dynamics and its uses. Extensive bibliography. 504KB
15 Mechanical Design of High Lift Systems for High Aspect Ratio Swept Wings Peter K. C. Rudolph 1998 A 118 page report on the mechanical linkages used by major airliners on their flap systems. Includes comparative performance information and detailed diagrams of sophisticated flap system mechanicals. 4MB
16 A Simplified Flight-test Method for Determining Aircraft Takeoff Performance that Includes Effects of Pilot Technique Terry J. Larson 1974 A detailed look at the considerations in testing takeoff distance performance. All the math. 2.9MB
17 Increasing Stability With Lower Approach Speeds John Libby 2007 A patented method of enhancing lateral control and CL at the same time by using slotted ailerons that also act as flaperons. 1MB
18 The Model T
Concept PAV
CAFE Foundation 2008 This paper presents a concept for an advanced Personal Air Vehicle (PAV) design that might be capable of winning
the NASA General Aviation Technology Challenge.
19 High-Lift Aerodynamics W.H. Mason 2007 W.H. Mason's excellent 22 page paper on High Lift Devices. 707KB
20 Modern Channel-wing/VTOL Research (English version)

Russion version

Movie demonstration
Nikolai Orlov 2009 The Keynote Lecture from PADA 2009 46MB

Engines/Motors/Fuels Papers

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# Title Author Year Description Size
1 Fuel Efficiency of Small Aircraft B.H. Carson 1980 From AIAA's Aircraft Systems Meeting Aug 4 1980 in St. Louis. A definitive paper on vehicular efficiency, draws upon Nobel Winner von Karman's work and is source of author's concept of Carson Speed, the most efficient speed for cruise flight. The landmark paper in flight efficiency. 548KB
2 The Opposed-Piston, Opposed-Cylinder Engine Kami Buchholz 2005 FEV's opposed piston, opposed cylinder engine concept, a new and smoother running engine from NASA's Glenn Research Center for possible use in quiet aircraft? 120KB
3 Alternate fuels for use in Commercial Aircraft Boeing/NASA 2007 An authoritative 8-page white paper on alternative fuels for use in aviation recently created by Boeing and NASA. The report cites many possible fuels, but concludes that algae biofuel is the "most attractive" alternative for mid-term sustainable mobility. Anyone interested in aviation's future in the face of concerns about Greenhouse Gas emissions and dwindling oil supplies, along with our need for a more distributed air transportation system, should read this paper. 1.2 MB
4 Sustainable Secure Alternate Aviation Fueling R.C. Hendricks 2007 A 2007 NASA Workshop looks at bio-fuel's future 1.7MB
5 Ultralightweight Gliders and Electric Propulsion Dean Sigler 2009    
6 Fuel Cell Airliners Francisco Leme Galvao 2007 An optimistic look at future long range transport using fuel cell/electric motors 436KB
7 LaunchPoint Efficient Motor Design Geoff Long 2009 An innovative motor design promising up to 5 BHP/lb with 95% efficiency. 3.2MB
8 The Electric Powered Aircraft David Ullman PhD 2009 A useful tour of the main considerations in electric aircraft design. link

NASA Aeronautics Program

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# Title Author Year Description Size
1 Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept Andrew S. Hahn   A superb and compelling report about the important transportation value of PAVs and a detailed discussion of specific features and capabilities that an ideal PAV should offer. 2.7 MB
2 NASA Personal Air Transportation Technologies Mark D. Moore   An exciting paper detailing NASA's findings on how converging the right technologies can create next generation PAVs that attract a huge new consumer market. Includes a great number of ideas for innovators to implement in new PAV designs. 2.3 MB
3 The Third Wave of Aeronautics: On-Demand Mobility Mark D. Moore 2006 A crucial, historical perspective on the evolution of aviation toward a new distributed transportation system whose growth will follow a model like the growth of personal computer ubiquity. The author  validates the bright future of PAVs in our transportation system and how the Next Generation Air Transportation System must accommodate them by invoking the model of the Innovators Dilemma, by which innovators who attract new customers compel change by supplanting existing companies and making existing systems obsolete. 800 KB
4 Personal Air Vehicle Exploration (PAVE) Mark D. Moore   This report explores air vehicles for door to door personal travel (a system solution involving air and ground) 2 MB
5 Subsonic fixed-wing Dr. Fay Collier 2006 This report was developed over the past several months by NASA to define the rationale, scope and detailed content of a comprehensive Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed-Wing research project. 7.7MB
6 Next Generation Air Transportation System Harry Swenson, Richard Barhydt, Michael Landis 2006 Study of a comprehensive air traffic management system. 9.1MB
7 Rotary Wing" Ms. Susan Gorton 2006 Exploration of rotary wing systems. 17.6MB

Noise Reduction Technologies

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# Title Author Year Description Size
1 A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Propeller Performance Methodologies K. D. Korkan et al 1980 From AIAA/SAE/ASME. 22 pages on NASA's mathematical prediction of propeller performance compared to actual measured performance, examining the most prevalent blade sections. 2.7MB
2 An Acoustic Sensitivity Study of General Aviation Propellers K.D. Korkan et al 1980 A 32 page noise study that examines several methods of reducing prop noise on Cessna aircraft. Good empirical results using metal propellers. Shows the effectiveness of reducing RPM and increasing number of blades. 2MB
3 Noise Control Predictions for High-speed, Propeller-Driven Aircraft J. F. Wilby et al 1980 Finds that a double wall cabin structure can effectively reduce noise, with some weight penalty. 1.3MB
4 Noise from a Vibrating Propeller H. L. Runyan 1980 An important paper exams the noise contribution of 'tuning fork' action of propeller blades. Engine smoothness is a key factor in propeller noise. 748KB
5 Effects of Acoustic Treatment on the Interior Noise Levels of a Twin-Engine Propeller Aircraft--Experimental Flight Results and Theoretical Predictions T. B. Beyer 1984 Looks at passive noise reducing methods for the cabin of a turbo-prop twin. Many methods are explored. 828KB
6 Noise Control Characteristics of Synchrophasing - An Experimental Investigation J. D. Jones 1984 Synchrophasing the blade positions of propellers on twin engine aircraft was shown to substantially reduce cabin noise. 532KB
7 Noise Control Characteristics of Synchrophasing - An Analytical Investigation C. R. Fuller 1984 High-speed turbo-prop aircraft need synchrophasing to quiet the cabin. This study examines the effects obtained. 476KB
8 Effects of Acoustic Treatment on the Interior Noise of a Twin-Engine Propeller Airplane T.B. Beyer 1984 Exams the noise reduction due to placing interior trim panels in a turboprop twin. 684KB
9 Noise Control Characteristics of Synchrophasing, Part 1: Analytical Investigation C.R. Fuller 1986 Synchrophasing on a high-speed turbo-prop. Up to 8 dB of quieting. 764KB
10 Noise Control Characteristics of Synchrophasing--Part 2: Experimental Investigation James D. Jones et al 1986 Showed 10-34 dB of quieting, depending on location in cabin and frequency band. 1.4MB
11 A Numerical Method for the Design and Analysis of Counter-Rotating Propellers S. C. Playle et al 1986 Counter-rotating propellers are numerically analyzed regarding their flow fields and thrust. 2.3MB
12 Validation of an Interior Noise Prediction Model for a Composite Cylinder T.B. Beyer 1987 A composite cylinder is used to measure fuselage noise patterns from several sources. 484KB
13 Noise Reduction of a Composite Cylinder Subjected to Random Acoustic Excitation F. Grosveld et al 1989 A composite cylinder's interior noise is measured after adding double wall sound-proofing. 1.3MB
14 An Acoustic Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Single Disc Propellers E. A. Bumann et al 1989 2, 3 and 4 blade props studied by a theoretical formula to predict noise. (Succi's) 738KB
15 Determination of Near and Far Field Acoustics for Advanced Propeller Configurations K.D. Korkan et al 1989 More theory on propfan noise, with discussion of blade flex as an impediment to predictions. Looks at both near and far measurement. 1.1MB
16 Noise Transmission of a Large Scale Composite Fuselage Model T. Beyer et al 1990 Examines the noise absorption/transmission properties of a mock composite fuselage. 1.3MB
17 High-Speed Propeller Noise Prediction—A Multidisciplinary Approach Mark H. Dunn and Feri Farassat 1992 Noise prediction theory for high speed propellers by the great Feri Farrassat at NASA. Includes discussion of blade deformation as a noise source. 1.6MB
18 Small Aircraft Propeller Noise with Ducted Propeller R. Duane Oleson et al 1998 A ducted propeller noise study indicates that inflow disturbance adds significantly to noise. Paves the way to noise study of ducted propellers. 1.5MB
19 Advanced Turboprop Noise Prediction Based on Recent Theoretical Results F. Farassat et al 1987 Computer mathematical analysis of advanced high-speed turbo-propeller noise and performance. 1.3MB
20 The Problem of Noise Reduction with Reference to Light Airplanes Theodore Theodorsen 1946 An early paper by the great Theodorsen examines general aviation prop noise and specifically urges use of multiple blades to quiet them. Applies the Gutin Formula, an early predictor of prop noise. 1.0MB
21 Comparison of Sound Emission from Two-blade, Four-blade, and Seven-blade Propellers Chester W. Hicks et al 1947 An early look at the noise reducing effect of lowered propeller tip speeds and use of multiple blades. Note: blades used had too much tip chord by today's math. 1.6MB
22 Propeller Loudness Charts for Light Airplanes Harvey H. Hubbard et al 1947 A nice collection of charts plotting noise v. RPM and other parameters of GA props. 2.1MB
23 Sound-level Measurements of a Light Airplane Modified to Reduce Noise Reaching the Ground A.. W. Vogeley 1948 Noise tests of 150-200 BHP engines and props including a large diameter, slow-turning 5 blade indicated that takeoff thrust suffers as blade number goes up unless a geared engine is used to allow slow-turning props of larger diameter. 616KB
24 Experiments in External Noise Reduction of Light Airplanes Leo L. Beranek et al 1950 122 pages on the several ways to reduce noise from a single engine piston aircraft, including multi-blade propellers, RPM reducers and engine mufflers. 4.5MB
25 Experiments to Determine Neighborhood Reactions to Light Airplanes With and Without External Noise Reduction Fred S. Elwell 1952 An elaborate survey study showing that reducing aircraft noise substantially improves neighborhood acceptance of GA. 5MB
26 A Theoretical Study of the Effect of Forward Speed on the Free -space Sound-pressure Field Around Propellers I. E. Garrick et al 1953 The sound pressure fields calculated around a prop and their sources. Discusses flow separation on the blade as a noise source and uses extensive mathematical analysis. 2.4MB
27 A Method for Calculation of Free-space Sound Pressures Near a Propeller in Flight Including Considerations of the Chord-wise Blade Loading Charles E. Watkins et al 1956 An elaborate study of the mathematical model of prop noise. 2.7MB
28 Measurements of Free-space Oscillating Pressures Near Propellers at Flight Mach Numbers to 0.72 Max C. Kurbjun et al Noise measurements of a P51 prop show that tapered tips were quieter and that noise rose rapidly as the blade tip speed exceeded 0.5 Mach. 808KB
29 A Review of Aerodynamic Noise From Propellers, Rotors, and Lift Fans Jack E. Marte et al 1970 An extensive review of noise calculation methods for props, fans and heli-rotors, includes a huge bibliography on V/STOL. 58 pages in all 3.9MB
30 Advanced General Aviation Propeller Study Rose Worobel et al 1971 204 pages of extensive material on GA prop design, including the full computer program code for designing the prop. 14.9MB
31 Computer Program User’s Manual For Advanced General Aviation Propeller Study Rose Worobel 1972 74 pages of User Manual for the Fortran program on propeller design for GA, whose code listing is included here. Developed by Hamilton Standard. 2.4MB
32 Aeroacoustic Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Light Twin-Boom General-Aviation Airplane With Free or Shrouded-Pusher Propellers H. Clyde McLemore et al 1980 87 pages on the full scale wind tunnel testing of a Cessna 337 for prop noise using 2, 3 and 5 blade metal props, with duct shrouds. The non-ducted propeller was quieter than the shrouded one. 4MB
33 On the Design and Test of a Low Noise Propeller George P. Succi 1981 The M.I.T. low noise propeller design is studied and compared to conventional props. An early attempt at proper span-wise blade lift distribution, but without the full flow field slow-down math of Jack Norris. 1.1MB
34 Experimental Study of the Effects of Installation on Single- and Counter-Rotation Propeller Noise P. J. W. Block 1986 A beautiful color 33 page study of the flow fields and noise patterns of counter-rotating propellers. 18MB
35 Prediction of Helicopter Rotor Discrete Frequency Noise Kenneth S. Brentner 1986 A computer program named WOPWOP by the great Feri Farassat for predicting heli-rotor blade noise. 1MB
36 An Experimental Investigation of the Interior Noise Control Effects of Propeller Synchrophasing J.D. Jones 1986 Virginia Tech examines fuselage quieting by prop synchrophasing. 2.5MB
37 Propfan Test Assessment Propfan Propulsion System Static Test Report 1987 A 237 page report on large propfan noise measurement. 7.6MB
38 Aircraft Interior Noise Reduction by Alternate Resonance Tuning Progress Report for the period ending June, 1990 Dr. Donald B. Bliss et al 1990 A 41 page study of Alternate Resonance Tuning, alteration of fuselage structure to alter its resonance with sound sources and quiet noise. 1.1MB
39 The Radiation of Sound from a Propeller at Angle of Attack Ramani Mani 1990 A study of the radically altered sound propagation from a propeller operating in a non-axis-symmetric flow, as in a positive angle of attack. A valuable 56 page glimpse of the real-world flow streams in which props operate. 1.4MB
40 Computational Methods in the Prediction of Advanced Subsonic and Supersonic Propeller Induced Noise--ASSPIN Users' Manual M.H. Dunn et al 1992 The Farassat ASSPIN program for predicting high-speed propeller noise. A pivotal 48 page paper in noise theory. 2.3MB
41 An Assessment of Propeller Aircraft Noise Reduction Technology F. Bruce Metzger 1995 128 pages of comprehensive review of the many ways of quieting propeller noise. This is a key paper. Many of the promising methods of noise reduction described herein have not yet been converged into one super quiet prop. 5.8MB
42 General Aviation Interior Noise: Part III Noise Control Measure Evaluation James F. Unruh 2002 60 pages of excellent material on the many contributors to cabin noise and how to quiet them. 4.7MB
43 The Noise of a Forward Swept Fan James H. Dittmar et al 2003 A multi-blade turbine engine forward swept fan blade shows promise as being quieter. 8.5MB
44 Derivation of Formulations 1 and 1A of Farassat F. Farassat 2007 Dr. Farassat's definitive prop noise formulae, derived. Elegant current math in 25 pages. 616KB
45 Advanced Turboprop Noise Prediction Based on Recent Theoretical Results F. Farassat et al 1987 Advanced turbo-prop noise prediction. 1.3MB
46 Noise Reduction System for General Aviation Aircraft, Phase II Sangvavann Heng et al 2005 A key current paper on GA muffler design, with the promise of a new foam material for silencing higher frequencies. The Ultramet muffler shows great promise for GA piston aircraft. This is the most substantial paper on silencing GA engine noise: 238 pages. 22.4MB
47 Active Attenuation of Propeller Blade Passage Noise J. M. Zalas et al 1984 ANR in a fuselage of a turbo-prop. 2.5MB
48 Environmental Noise Measurement Brüel & Kjær A primer on environmental noise. 628KB
49 Basic Concept of Sound Brüel & Kjær 1998 Basic concepts of sound and its measurement in 32 pages. 740KB
50 The Connection Between Acoustics and Unsteady Aerodynamics Feri Farassat, NASA Langley
2008 The Connection Between Acoustics and Unsteady Aerodynamics 101MB

NextGen: PAVs and SATS

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# Title Author Year Description Size
1 Personal Air Vehicle Exploration Mark D. Moore 2002 A super slide show of NASA Langley's PAV vision and the many technologies that it envisions, with particular emphasis on flying cars, new engines and other key enabling innovations. 2.1MB
2 Analysis of Small Aircraft as a Transportation System Samuel M. Dollyhigh 2002 A macroeconomic model view of SATS and PAVs, using the Cirrus and Eclipse 500 as sample vehicles. Emphasizes the importance of 150 mph speed range for PAVs along with the 100-400 mile range niche. 3MB
3 Personal Air Vehicles: A Rural/ Regional and Intra-Urban On-demand Transportation System Mark D. Moore 2003 The definitive document on the PAV vision by one of NASA's PAV Founding Fathers. This 20 page jewel presents compelling evidence for the role of PAVs in our nation's transportation system. Enumerates many of the enabling technologies and how automotive volume production will lower vehicle cost. 1.7MB
4 Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept Andrew S. Hahn 2006 Andrew Hahn's excellent paper on PAV technologies and how they enable a resurgence in GA. Cites worrisome statistics about threats to the vitality of GA and how PAVs return value to the system. 2.8MB
5 The Third Wave of Aeronautics: On-Demand Mobility Mark D. Moore 2006 Mark Moore reviews the history of aviation as waves 1, 2 and 3 and cites the innovator's dilemma as operating in the small aircraft market. Presents the PAV vision in updated perspective. 808KB
6 NASA Personal Air Transportation Technologies Mark D. Moore 2006 Mark Moore's well-illustrated 14 page paper on the technologies that will make PAVs attractive and useful. Ties closely with the NASA PAV Challenge prize categories and their enabling technologies. 2.3MB
7 Aeronautics Innovation: NASA's Challenges and Opportunities Stephen A. Merrill 2006 A comprehensive look at NASA Aeronautics today. Page 2-18 supports NASA's plan of inducing technologies through Centennial Challenges. 1MB
8 Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. General Aviation, Calendar Year 2001 NTSB 2001 The comprehensive statistics on accidents in aviation. More recent reports on accidents are available from AOPA's Nall Report. 2.3MB
9 NASA PAV Simulation Effort—Presented to NASA LARC RhinoCorps Ltd. Co 2005 An important feasibility study by a battlefield simulation company showing that the skies can accommodate huge increases in air traffic without conflicts. 2.3MB
10 Frontiers of the "Responsibly Imaginable" in (Civilian) Aeronautics Dennis Bushnell 1998 A thorough look at future aeronautics possibilities by NASA's Chief Scientist. 2.2MB
11 PAVE Futures Dennis Bushnell 2004 NASA Chief Scientist's visionary view of personal air travel 84KB

FAA Guidelines

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# Title Author Year Description Size
1 Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook William J. White 1995 AC90-89a is a rich source of information in design/testing of new experimental aircraft 797KB
2 Pilot Compartment View Design Considerations David G. Hmiel 1993 Guidelines for field of view 409KB



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